How did mathematics come about?
Every first grader knows that the subject of mathematics is associated with a score. By this term, we mean studying not only counting, but also acquaintance with geometric figures, formulas, mathematical calculations and other information. But if you look into it, the information we are studying did not come from anywhere, it was going for centuries, for years. It is interesting, but how did mathematics appear? Let us now consider.
The history of the formation of science - mathematics
Even in the most distant times, the score was considered a mathematical activity. He was simply necessary, for example, to engage in trade or even cattle breeding, because even walking the cattle to pasture, it was necessary to monitor their number. To make it easier to cope with this task, parts of the body, such as fingers and toes, were used. This is confirmed by cave paintings depicting numbers in the form of several fingers depicted in a row. These facts confirm the emergence of mathematics and counting.
First mathematical discoveries
One of the first significant discoveries is the idea of the number itself, as well as the invention of the main four actions that we all know now - multiplication, division, addition and subtraction. The first geometrical achievements are the simplest concepts, such as a straight line and a circle. The further emergence of mathematics and development took place thanks to the Egyptians and Babylonians, about 3000 years before our era. The clay tablets with texts that have survived to our days give us insights into the calculations that are being made. The simplest arithmetic was needed when exchanging money, paying for goods, for calculating interest, taxes and other things. Various types of construction were forced to carry out numerous geometric as well as arithmetic tasks. Another important task was the calendar, which needed to be calculated in order to determine the timing of work, as well as holidays.
Mathematics in Egypt and Babylon
Babylonian astronomy gives us a beginning in the division into parts (degrees, minutes). They also own the number system, the symbols that indicate the unit, the designation of numbers using dozens and the symbol of the unit.True, there was no zero in the number system, which led to the designation of different numbers with the same symbol. Ancient Egypt was a little inferior in its level of development. His writing was based on hieroglyphs, respectively, to indicate numbers from 1 to 9 used vertical dashes, and after 10 - symbols, alternating which could be written any necessary number.
The history of the emergence of mathematics tells us that approximately until the beginning of the 17th century, mathematics was considered the science of numbers, values, and geometric figures. Its field of application was trade, counting, astronomy, land surveying and a bit of architecture. In the 18th century, the rapid development of technology and natural science led to the emergence of the idea of measurement, movement in the form of variables that were interconnected. In the 19th and 20th centuries, mathematics occupies new stages in its development, growing into computational mathematics. And this is only a small part of what can be said about how mathematics originated.
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