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How are nouns formed?

A noun is one of the most frequently used parts of speech, designed to name (or give a name) a certain object: object, feeling, animal, weather, man, and so on, thereby answering the questions "who?", "What?". How nouns are formed, every person needs to know, especially if his profession (for example: a journalist, a writer, a writer, an editor, etc.) is associated with writing articles, literary works, essays, etc. At present, noun education in Russian happens in many ways. Therefore, in this article we will consider the most important and frequently used techniques and dwell in detail on the suffixal method of forming nouns, as one of the most colorful and multifaceted methods of creating new words.

Ways of word formation of nouns

  1. By rethinking the meaning of words already existing in the language, and also by completely separating them from each other (the formation of homonyms).Example: the modern word "teapot" in the meaning of "a person is not good at all or does not understand this or that topic." Previously, it was used only in the sense of "vessel with a spout." This is a lexico-semantic word formation.
  2. The possibility of the formation of words from phrases determines the lexico-syntactic method. For example: blood loss, pastime, etc.
  3. Morphological and syntactic method, especially in the manifestation of substantivization of adjectives that can act both as a noun and as an adjective. For example: sick, military, assistant, etc.
  4. Morphological word formation is one of the richest ways to form nouns. The most common types of its formation are: affixation, addition of bases and the suffix method.
  5. The prefixal (prefixal) method in the derivation of a noun is used less frequently than the suffixal one. Often, prefixed nouns are created from a verb stem or adjective that has the same prefix.
  6. The bessufixal method of word formation is the basis of professional speech (pad, airflow, heating, etc.). Sometimes this method is used in common parlance (words: wipe, shout, etc.).Professionally-terminological vocabulary is much richer and more weighty vernacular and distributed to the masses through the media (for example, positive, fan, etc.).

Suffixing Word Formation

Nouns created using suffixes can be presented in the form of four groups:

  1. Names of persons - a way to form nouns by signs (occupation, place of residence, properties, social affiliation, religion, etc.). The suffixes -shchik, -chik, -ts, -nik, -ik, -tel, -ich, -ist, -anin, -ak (-yak) are used. Moreover, the suffixes forming the patronymic should be singled out: -ovich, -own-a, -ich, -ichnich-a, -ich, -ichn-a, -ovich, -evich. Examples of words: clerk, brawn, teacher, financier, Ilinichna, Viktorovich.
  2. Distracted names are formed:
    • from verbs by means of suffixes –nie, -enie, -k-a, -b (a), -ti, -f (i), -n (i), -ang (i). Examples: admiring, shooting, kin;
    • from adjectives by means of suffixes -ness (-a), -in (a), -ins (a), -from (a), -et (a), -stv (o) (-stv (o). Examples: Visibility , virgin, whiteness, fatherland;
    • Collective names are formed by the suffixes -stats (o), -stv (o), -n (i), -zhi, -v (a), -from (a), -j- (orthographically). Examples: poor people, young people, students.

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