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What are flowers?

The flower is an organ of sexual reproduction of plants (flowering). It is a shortened stem, on which the leaves are modified and adapted to form seeds. Based on this, it can be summarized that flowers are a special organ of the plant, designed to perform the reproductive function.

How are the flowers

In colors there are such departments:

  • Stem, which consists of a receptacle and pedicel;
  • Leaf, consisting of petals and sepals;
  • Sexual or generative - consists of pistils (female organs) and stamens (male reproductive organs).

In addition, parts of flowers are divided into fertile, which include stamens and pistils, and sterile - all other parts, which are called perianth. The structure of each flower can be very different in different plants, so it is important to know what are the flowers and how they differ. But the essence of the device in all colors is approximately the same, there are only external differences.

Reproductive parts of flowers

As already mentioned, the reproductive organs of the flower are divided into male - stamens (the totality of which is called androceum), and female - pistils (gynetsy).

The number of stamens in different plant species can vary from one to a couple hundred. These organs consist of the anther and the filament filament. For a certain type of plant, this indicator is usually constant. Stamens located on the same flower may differ in their structure. On the flower, these organs can grow together and, depending on how many groups they form, they are distinguished by one-, two-, and multidimensional androcium. When the stamens do not grow together, they talk about fraternal androcea.

A pistil or several pistils on one flower form a gynetsa - the inside of a flower, it is also called carpels. This is the most significant part of the reproductive organ of a plant, since it is inside of it that the seeds are formed, and the fruit is formed from its walls. The pestle consists of stigma, post and ovary.

Sterile flower parts

The sterile part of the flowers does not directly participate in sexual reproduction. However, the function of this part is no less important - the perianth protects fragile stamens and pistils from mechanical damage that animals or insects can cause. The perianth is a calyx (green leaves, called sepals) and a corolla (leaves painted with different colors, which are called petals).

The cup makes up the outer part of the perianth - it performs the function of protecting the flower, which develops, from premature disclosure. Sometimes the corolla of a flower may be completely absent, then the cup goes over its function.

The corolla is formed by petals, forming the next circle after the calyx in the flower. This is the brightest and most attractive part in the generative organ of the plant, it is he who creates the appearance of the flower. That's what flowers really are. The color of the petals is determined by various pigments (carotenoids, anthocyanins, anthofeins, etc.).

The corolla and flower petals reflect part of the sun during the daytime, thereby protecting the generative organs of the flower from overheating, and at night, closing in, from overcooling with dew drops. In addition, the elements of the sterile part of the flower are usually bright, and that is what attracts pollinators - insects and birds (but the plants that are pollinated by the wind have bright petals).

Attraction of pollinators flowers plants "learned" also through the release of fragrant essential oils and sweet nectar. These substances are produced by the cells of the skin of the petals, and in individual plant species by special aroma-producing glands with secretory activity. Therefore, flowers have a smell.


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