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What is the endometrium?

Women's health depends on many factors, including the state of the individual components of the internal genital organs. For example, the state of the endometrium affects the menstrual cycle, as well as the perspective and course of pregnancy. Let's try to understand what the endometrium is, what role it plays in the body and what pathologies of the endometrium exist.

Endometrium: definition

Endometrium: what does this medical term mean? This is the name of the mucous membrane that lines the uterus from the inside.

Endometrium consists of integument and epithelium, the main substance and stroma. In addition, this mucous membrane is richly supplied with blood vessels. In the endometrium, there are two main layers: functional and basal.

Endometrial function

The main function of the endometrium is the creation of favorable conditions for the onset and course of pregnancy. It is attached to the embryo after fertilization of the egg. With the onset of pregnancy in the endometrium, the blood supply increases due to an increase in the number (growth) of blood vessels,and the number of glands increases. The vessels of this layer are included in the placenta, which provides the fetus with oxygen and nutrition.

If fertilization does not occur, then part of the epithelium is exfoliated and removes the unfertilized egg from the uterus and body together with the menstrual blood. Therefore, the endometrium performs its second main function in the menstrual cycle. The cyclical nature of critical days and the profusion of menstruation depend on its condition. You can read more about this in the article What are critical days.

Endometrial condition

Endometrial tissue is sensitive to hormonal changes. From the phases of the menstrual cycle depends on its thickness. So, for example, it is in the last phase of the cycle that the thickness of the endometrium reaches its maximum (normal) values ​​due to the enrichment of the blood supply and glands. In this state, the uterus is ready for implantation of the ovum, which happens during fertilization of the egg.

If the pregnancy has not come, the functional part of the endometrium is rejected, and after the end of menstruation the cycle is resumed, the mucous membrane is restored and the endometrial thickness increases.During the cycle, the thickness of the endometrium changes:

  • 1-2 days - up to 9 mm;
  • 3-4 days - up to 5 mm;
  • 5 - 7 day - up to 9 mm;
  • 8-10 day - up to 10 mm;
  • 11 - 18 days - up to 13 mm;
  • 19-23 days - up to 14 mm;
  • 24 - 27 - up to 13 mm.

Thus, the normal thickness of the endometrium should be from 5 to 14 mm. If it is less or more, then this indicates a pathology of the endometrium.

Endometrial pathology

The main pathology of the endometrium:

  1. Thickening - hyperplasia.
  2. Thinning - hypoplasia.
  3. Cystic endometrium - abnormal tissue growth.

Hypoplasia manifests itself as a stable thin state of the endometrium without its cyclical hormonal thickening. It may be caused by a violation of the estrogen receptor, as well as insufficient blood supply and chronic endometritis.

Hyperplasia occurs with excessive proliferation of the endometrium. Often accompanied by chronic inflammatory processes of the female genital organs, as well as uterine myoma and genital endometriosis. Hyperplasia contributes to diabetes mellitus, obesity and arterial hypertension.

Cystic endometrium of the uterus. What is it? This pathology occurs in the process of cell division anomalies.It occurs on the background of hormonal disorders and under the influence of antigenic stimuli, that is, it is a reaction to infectious diseases.


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